Indonesia's Mass Rapid Transit on Development

The Government of Indonesia continues to pursue the lagging of infrastructure facilities for optimization of public facilities. Indonesia has a problem with traffic congestion and complex population density, so optimization of public facilities is an appropriate step taken in order to break down congestion and encourage economic growth in various sectors. One of the most intense public facilities in the development progression is the MRT (Mass Rapid Transit). As with other developed countries such as America, China, and Japan who have completed the MRT project in their respective countries, with all polemics in policy, bureaucracy and licensing, Indonesia finally moves to become a modern state and equal to the countries that are far away from Indonesia in terms of infrastructure.

Since 1980 more than twenty-five general and special subject studies have been conducted in relation to the possibility of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) systems in Jakarta. One of the main reasons that delayed the handling of this problem was the economic and political crisis of 1997-1999. Before the crisis, a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) that was considered part of the new MRT involved the private sector. After the crisis plans to rely on BOT to provide financing proved to be unfeasible and the MRT project re-proposed as a government-funded scheme.

The current public transportation in Jakarta only serves 56% of the trips made by daily commuters. This figure is desperately needed to be upgraded as a city with an average annual rate of motor vehicle growth of 9.5% which far exceeds the length of the road between 2005 and 2010 with an increase of only 0.01%.

On 28 November 2006, the signing of the approval for the Jakarta MRT Project financing was done by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) Governor Kyosuke Shinozawa and Indonesian Ambassador to Japan Yusuf Anwar. JBIC also designed and provided study recommendations to the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta. An agreement has been reached between JBIC and the Government of Indonesia, to appoint one body to be the one door of organizing the completion of this MRT project.

JBIC then merged with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). JICA acts as an assessment team from JBIC as the lender. In the schedule made by JICA and MRT Jakarta, the technical design and land acquisition were carried out in 2008-2009, tender of construction and tender of electrical and mechanical equipment in 2009-2010, while construction work commenced in 2010-2014. Operational trials are scheduled to begin in 2014. However, the schedule is not met. Project design was carried out from 2008-2009, the construction phase is done from October 2013, and proclaimed completed in 2018.
The Jakarta MRT project starts with the construction of the Phase I MRT line along ± 16 kilometers from Lebak Bulus Terminal to Hotel Indonesia Roundabout which has 13 stations and 1 Depo. To minimize the physical development impact of Phase I, in addition to cooperating with traffic management consultants, PT MRT Jakarta also has an Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA). Phase I operation will begin in 2019.

Financing Scheme of Indonesia MRT, source: www.jakartamrt.co.id

The construction of the Phase I MRT line will be the beginning of the history of the development of an integrated network of MRT systems that are part of the mass transportation system of DKI Jakarta in the future. Subsequent development continues Sudirman’s path to Ancol (called the North-South line) as well as the development of the East-West line. In the Engineering Service stage, PT MRT Jakarta is responsible for the prequalification process and contractor auctions.

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In the Construction phase, PT MRT Jakarta as an attribution of the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government signs contracts with construction contractors, and consultants assisting with contractor tendering processes, as well as management and operational consultants.
In the operation and maintenance phase, PT MRT Jakarta is responsible for operations and maintenance, including ensuring that a sufficient number of passengers are provided to provide a reasonable income for the company.

Implementation of MRT development involves several agencies, both at the level of Central Government, Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta, and PT MRT Jakarta itself. Therefore, the necessary budget documents also involve these institutions under different program and activity names but with the same output, the development of MRT Jakarta.

On February 7, 2018, the President of the Republic of Indonesia Joko Widodo directly observed two phases of MRT project development phase of Jakarta 1. The two locations in question are the Underground Station of Hotel Indonesia and Senayan Bus Station. In his trip, Jokowi accompanied by Jakarta Governor Anies Baswedan, Minister of Transportation Budi Karya Sumadi, and Nasdem Surya Paloh Party Chairman took the opportunity to see the railway installation and feature in the two underground stations, such as screen doors platform, waiting areas for passengers, access to persons with disabilities, to the interior design plans of the two stations. President Commissioner and Board of Directors of PT MRT Jakarta were present to welcome the visit.

President of Indonesia Joko Widodo when reviewing MRT developments

President Director of PT MRT Jakarta, William P. Sabandar looks to explain the construction of each station, including the work being done by the current contractor. The group looked seriously listening to William Sabandar’s explanation and occasionally received a more detailed explanation of other directors who helped accompany this group. The visit started at 15.30 WIB at the Hotel Indonesia Roundabout Station and ended at around 16:30 pm at Senayan Station. William said that President Jokowi appreciated the quality of the work of MRT Jakarta project. “He is also amazed by the number of changes since his last visit a year ago,” said William who referred to President Jokowi’s visit on February 23, 2017 at Setiabudi Station when inaugurated the completion of drilling work connecting Senayan Station and Hotel Indonesia Roundabout Station where the four machines drill tunnel meet at Setiabudi Station.

Until February 25, 2018, the development of civil construction has reached 91.86 percent, with 87.99 percent flyway work details and 95.86 percent underground lines. For Roundabout Hotel Indonesia has reached 98.06 percent and Senayan Station 97.51 percent. MRT Jakarta also builds a comfortable sidewalk about 200 meters in every entrance area of the underground station on Sudirman road. The first two sets of Jakarta MRT trains will arrive on March 26, 2018 and the entire set will be ready for testing by December 2018. The MRT Jakarta train is targeted for commercial operation in March 2019 and is expected to carry more than 173 thousand people a day.

Reference: Jakarta MRT

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